Carbon Capture and Storage Technology: A Promising Solution for Combating Climate Change

Carbon Capture and Storage Technology: A Promising Solution for Combating Climate Change

Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from human activities, particularly from the burning of fossil fuels, have been identified as a major contributor to climate change. To address this critical issue, scientists and engineers have been actively exploring innovative solutions to reduce carbon emissions and mitigate their impact on the environment. One such technology that holds great promise is Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). In this article, we will delve into the concept of CCS, how it works, and highlight some compelling examples of its implementation.

Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is a process that involves capturing CO2 emissions from industrial processes or power plants, transporting the captured CO2 to a storage site, and securely storing it underground in geological formations. The ultimate goal is to prevent large amounts of CO2 from being released into the atmosphere, thus helping to limit global warming and its associated effects.

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The first step of CCS is the capture of CO2 emissions. Various methods are employed for capturing CO2, including post-combustion capture, pre-combustion capture, and oxy-fuel combustion. Post-combustion capture involves removing CO2 from flue gases after fossil fuels are burned, while pre-combustion capture involves converting fossil fuels into a mixture of hydrogen and CO2 before combustion. Oxy-fuel combustion, on the other hand, burns fuels in pure oxygen to produce a flue gas primarily composed of CO2 and water vapor, making it easier to capture the CO2.

Once the CO2 is captured, it needs to be transported to a suitable storage site. This transportation can be done through pipelines, ships, or other means of transportation, depending on the distance and quantity of CO2 to be transported. The final step of CCS is the secure storage of CO2 in geological formations, such as deep saline aquifers, depleted oil and gas reservoirs, or unmineable coal seams. These formations act as natural traps for the CO2, ensuring that it remains safely stored and does not seep back into the atmosphere.

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According to International Energy Agency IEA here are the states that are engaging in developing this technology further:

  • the United States and United Kingdom have increased their funding for Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage (CCUS) projects. The US introduced new funding opportunities under the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act and favorable tax credit changes in the Inflation Reduction Act. The UK allocated GBP 20 billion in its Spring Budget 2023 for early CCUS project deployment.
  • The European Union proposed a CO2 storage target as part of the Net Zero Industry Act, aiming for an annual CO2 injection target of 50 Mt CO2/yr by 2030. Additionally, Denmark’s Project Greensand, a CCUS pilot, became operational, transporting CO2 from Belgium for storage in a depleted oil field in the Danish North Sea.
  • Indonesia took significant steps by finalizing its legal and regulatory framework for CCUS, becoming the first country in the region to establish a framework for CCUS activities.
  • In Asia, China witnessed three new operational CCUS projects in 2023, while Japan selected seven candidate projects for support toward commercialization. These advancements reflect the growing global interest in CCUS as a crucial strategy to combat climate change.

Globally, there are approximately 40 commercial carbon capture facilities currently in operation, collectively capable of capturing over 45 Mt CO2 annually. Since January 2022, seven new large-scale capture facilities have been launched, with each having a capture capacity of over 100,000 tCO2/yr (or over 1,000 tCO2/yr for Direct Air Capture (DAC) applications). Notable projects include the Red Trail Energy Project and the Global Thermostat DAC pilot in the United States, the Arcelor LanzaTech Carbalyst (Steelanol) project in Belgium, and four projects in China.

However, despite the progress made, the pipeline of current projects accounts for only about one-third of the target set by the Net Zero Emissions (NZE) Scenario requirement for 2030. Although more than 50 new capture facilities with a 2030 operational target have been announced since January 2022, further efforts and investments are needed to meet the ambitious carbon capture goals and combat climate change effectively.

In the Middle East, the momentum is also growing, with about ten projects in various stages of development across the region. Notably, Bahrain has expressed interest in studying the implementation of CCUS for aluminium smelting, while Qatar is making strides in expanding its CCUS capacity through the construction of the North Field East liquified natural gas (LNG) project. This expansion will increase Qatar’s CCUS capacity from over 2 Mt CO2/year to 5 Mt CO2/year by 2025. The emergence of these initiatives in diverse geographical regions showcases the global commitment to advancing carbon capture technologies and combatting climate change on a broader scale.

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Several technological innovations are being tested to reduce Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage (CCUS) costs for power generation and industrial sectors:

NET Power’s 50 MW clean energy plant, commissioned in 2018, employs the Allam cycle technology, utilizing CO2 as a working fluid in an oxyfuel supercritical CO2 power cycle. This innovation has the potential to significantly reduce capture costs. Net Zero Teesside Power in the United Kingdom is set to be operational in 2027 and could become one of the first commercial-scale gas-fired power stations with CCUS. It was identified as an investment priority by the UK government in March 2023.


Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology represents a critical tool in the fight against climate change. By capturing and securely storing CO2 emissions, CCS has the potential to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions from industrial processes and power generation. With continued research, innovation, and global cooperation, CCS can play a pivotal role in mitigating climate change and steering humanity towards a cleaner, greener planet.


This article was written by Shqipe Asani who is a SolarEyes Contributor. More information about SolarEyes Contributors can be found on this link:




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Simon Tyrus Caine

Simon Tyrus Caine is a solar energy expert with more than 10 years experience in the solar sector. Simon has worked and lived in more than 5 countries. Simon has been involved in solar installations, solar project development, solar financing as well as business development in the solar sector. At SolarEyes International, Simon manages content development and day to day operations of the organisation.

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